Winscp Openssh Key

Posted : admin On 1/3/2022

Recently, Microsoft has released a port of OpenSSH for Windows. You can use the package to set up an SFTP/SSH server on Windows.

  • Installing SFTP/SSH Server
  • Connecting to the server

Using CuteHowTo.com you can watch videos of how-to-do-thing and tutorials, you can exploring new fields of interst, and expanding your knowledge in variety of topics. OpenSSH Server key management for Windows using the Windows tools or PowerShell.

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  • In Settings app, go to Apps > Apps & features > Manage optional features.
  • Locate “OpenSSH server” feature, expand it, and select Install.

Binaries are installed to %WINDIR%System32OpenSSH. Configuration file (sshd_config) and host keys are installed to %ProgramData%ssh (only after the server is started for the first time).

You may still want to use the following manual installation if you want to install a newer version of OpenSSH than the one built into Windows 10.

  • Download the latest OpenSSH for Windows binaries (package OpenSSH-Win64.zip or OpenSSH-Win32.zip)
  • As the Administrator, extract the package to C:Program FilesOpenSSH
  • As the Administrator, install sshd and ssh-agent services:
  • Allow incoming connections to SSH server in Windows Firewall:
    • When installed as an optional feature, the firewall rule “OpenSSH SSH Server (sshd)” should have been created automatically. If not, proceed to create and enable the rule as follows.
    • Either run the following PowerShell command as the Administrator:
      Replace C:System32OpenSSHsshd.exe with the actual path to the sshd.exe (C:Program FilesOpenSSHssh.exe, had you followed the manual installation instructions above).
    • or go to Control Panel > System and Security > Windows Defender Firewall1 > Advanced Settings > Inbound Rules and add a new rule for port 22.
  • Start the service and/or configure automatic start:
    • Go to Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools and open Services. Locate OpenSSH SSH Server service.
    • If you want the server to start automatically when your machine is started: Go to Action > Properties. In the Properties dialog, change Startup type to Automatic and confirm.
    • Start the OpenSSH SSH Server service by clicking the Start the service.

These instructions are partially based on the official deployment instructions.

Follow a generic guide for Setting up SSH public key authentication in *nix OpenSSH server, with the following difference:

  • Create the .ssh folder (for the authorized_keys file) in your Windows account profile folder (typically in C:Usersusername.ssh).2
  • For permissions to the .ssh folder and the authorized_keys file, what matters are Windows ACL permissions, not simple *nix permissions. Set the ACL so that the respective Windows account is the owner of the folder and the file and is the only account that has a write access to them. The account that runs OpenSSH SSH Server service (typically SYSTEM or sshd) needs to have read access to the file.
  • Though, with the default Win32-OpenSSH configuration there is an exception set in sshd_config for accounts in Administrators group. For these, the server uses a different location for the authorized keys file: %ALLUSERSPROFILE%sshadministrators_authorized_keys (i.e. typically C:ProgramDatasshadministrators_authorized_keys).

Before the first connection, find out the fingerprint of the server’s host key by using ssh-keygen.exe for each file.

In Windows command-prompt, use:

Replace %WINDIR%System32 with %ProgramFiles%, if appropriate.

In PowerShell, use:

Replace $env:WINDIRSystem32 with $env:ProgramFiles, if appropriate.

You will get an output like this:

Start WinSCP. Login dialog will appear. On the dialog:

  • Make sure New site node is selected.
  • On New site node, make sure the SFTP protocol is selected.
  • Enter your machine/server IP address (or a hostname) into the Host name box.
  • Enter your Windows account name to the User name box. It might have to be entered in the format [email protected] if running on a domain.
  • For a public key authentication:
    • Press the Advanced button to open Advanced site settings dialog and go to SSH > Authentication page.
    • In Private key file box select your private key file.
    • Submit Advanced site settings dialog with the OK button.
  • For a password authentication:
    • Enter your Windows account password to the Password box.
    • If your Windows account does not have a password, you cannot authenticate with the password authentication (i.e. with an empty password), you need to use the public key authentication.
  • Save your site settings using the Save button.
  • Login using Login button.
  • Verify the host key by comparing fingerprints with those collected before (see above).

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If you cannot authenticate to the server and use Windows 10 Developer mode, make sure that your OpenSSH server does not conflict with an internal SSH server used by the Developer mode. You may need to turn off the SSH Server Broker and SSH Server Proxy Windows services. Or run your OpenSSH server on a different port than 22.

  • Guide to Installing Secure FTP Server on Windows using IIS;
  • Guide to uploading files to SFTP server;
  • Guide to automating operations (including upload).
  1. Windows Firewall on older versions of Windows.Back
  2. Windows File Explorer does not allow you to create a folder starting with a dot directly. As a workaround, use .ssh., the trailing dot will allow you to bypass the restriction, but will not be included in the name.Back
Winscp Openssh Key

Before you begin

Key

Using SSH public key authentication to connect to a remote system is a robust, more secure alternative to logging in with an account password or passphrase. SSH public key authentication relies on asymmetric cryptographic algorithms that generate a pair of separate keys (a key pair), one 'private' and the other 'public'. You keep the private key a secret and store it on the computer you use to connect to the remote system. Conceivably, you can share the public key with anyone without compromising the private key; you store it on the remote system in a .ssh/authorized_keys directory.

To use SSH public key authentication:

  • The remote system must have a version of SSH installed. The information in this document assumes the remote system uses OpenSSH. If the remote system is using a different version of SSH (for example, Tectia SSH), the process outlined below may not be correct.
  • The computer you use to connect to the remote server must have a version of SSH installed. This document includes instructions for generating a key pair with command-line SSH on a Linux or macOS computer, and with PuTTY on a Windows computer.
  • You need to be able to transfer your public key to the remote system. Therefore, you must either be able to log into the remote system with an established account username and password/passphrase, or have an administrator on the remote system add the public key to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file in your account.
  • Two-factor authentication using Two-Step Login (Duo) is required for access to the login nodes on IU research supercomputers, and for SCP and SFTP file transfers to those systems. SSH public key authentication remains an option for researchers who submit the 'SSH public key authentication to HPS systems' agreement (log into HPC everywhere using your IU username and passphrase), in which you agree to set a passphrase on your private key when you generate your key pair. If you have questions about how two-factor authentication may impact your workflows, contact the UITS Research Applications and Deep Learning team. For help, see Get started with Two-Step Login (Duo) at IU and Help for Two-Step Login (Duo).

Set up public key authentication using SSH on a Linux or macOS computer

To set up public key authentication using SSH on a Linux or macOS computer:

Winscp Ssh Key Powershell

  1. Log into the computer you'll use to access the remote host, and then use command-line SSH to generate a key pair using the RSA algorithm.

    To generate RSA keys, on the command line, enter:

  2. You will be prompted to supply a filename (for saving the key pair) and a password (for protecting your private key):
    • Filename: To accept the default filename (and location) for your key pair, press Enter or Return without entering a filename.

      Alternatively, you can enter a filename (for example, my_ssh_key) at the prompt, and then press Enter or Return. However, many remote hosts are configured to accept private keys with the default filename and path (~/.ssh/id_rsa for RSA keys) by default. Consequently, to authenticate with a private key that has a different filename, or one that is not stored in the default location, you must explicitly invoke it either on the SSH command line or in an SSH client configuration file (~/.ssh/config); see below for instructions.

    • Password: Enter a password that contains at least five characters, and then press Enter or Return. If you press Enter or Return without entering a password, your private key will be generated without password-protection.
      If you don't password-protect your private key, anyone with access to your computer conceivably can SSH (without being prompted for a password) to your account on any remote system that has the corresponding public key.

    Your private key will be generated using the default filename (for example, id_rsa) or the filename you specified (for example, my_ssh_key), and stored on your computer in a .ssh directory off your home directory (for example, ~/.ssh/id_rsa or ~/.ssh/my_ssh_key).

    The corresponding public key will be generated using the same filename (but with a .pub extension added) and stored in the same location (for example, ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub or ~/.ssh/my_ssh_key.pub).

  3. Use SFTP or SCP to copy the public key file (for example, ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub) to your account on the remote system (for example, [email protected]); for example, using command-line SCP:

    You'll be prompted for your account password. Your public key will be copied to your home directory (and saved with the same filename) on the remote system.

  4. Log into the remote system using your account username and password.
    If the remote system is not configured to support password-based authentication, you will need to ask system administrators to add your public key to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file in your account (if your account doesn't have ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, system administrators can create one for you). Once your public key is added to your ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on the remote system, the setup process is complete, and you should now be able to SSH to your account from the computer that has your private key.
  5. If your account on the remote system doesn't already contain a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, create one; on the command line, enter the following commands:
    If your account on the remote system already has a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, executing these commands will not damage the existing directory or file.
  6. On the remote system, add the contents of your public key file (for example, ~/id_rsa.pub) to a new line in your ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file; on the command line, enter:

    You may want to check the contents of ~/.ssh/authorized_keys to make sure your public key was added properly; on the command line, enter:

  7. You may now safely delete the public key file (for example, ~/id_rsa.pub) from your account on the remote system; on the command line, enter:

    Alternatively, if you prefer to keep a copy of your public key on the remote system, move it to your .ssh directory; on the command line, enter:

  8. Optionally, repeat steps 3-7 to add your public key to other remote systems that you want to access from the computer that has your private key using SSH public key authentication.
  9. You now should be able to SSH to your account on the remote system (for example, [email protected]) from the computer (for example, host1) that has your private key (for example, ~/.ssh/id_rsa):
    • If your private key is password-protected, the remote system will prompt you for the password or passphrase (your private key password/passphrase is not transmitted to the remote system):
    • If your private key is not password-protected, the remote system will place you on the command line in your home directory without prompting you for a password or passphrase:

    If the private key you're using does not have the default name, or is not stored in the default path (not ~/.ssh/id_rsa), you must explicitly invoke it in one of two ways:

    • On the SSH command line: Add the -i flag and the path to your private key.

      For example, to invoke the private key host2_key, stored in the ~/.ssh/old_keys directory, when connecting to your account on a remote host (for example, [email protected]), enter:

    • In an SSH client configuration file: SSH gets configuration data from the following sources (in this order):
      1. From command-line options
      2. From the user's client configuration file (~/.ssh/config), if it exists
      3. From the system-wide client configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config)

      The SSH client configuration file is a text file containing keywords and arguments. To specify which private key should be used for connections to a particular remote host, use a text editor to create a ~/.ssh/config that includes the Host and IdentityFile keywords.

      For example, for connections to host2.somewhere.edu, to make SSH automatically invoke the private key host2_key, stored in the ~/.ssh/old_keys directory, create a ~/.ssh/config file with these lines included:

      Once you save the file, SSH will use the specified private key for future connections to that host.

      You can add multiple Host and IdentityFile directives to specify a different private key for each host listed; for example:

      Alternatively, you can use a single asterisk ( * ) to provide global defaults for all hosts (specify one private key for several hosts); for example:

      For more about the SSH client configuration file, see the OpenSSH SSH client configuration file on the web or from the command line (man ssh_config).

Key

Openssh Key Generation

Set up public key authentication using PuTTY on a Windows 10 or Windows 8.x computer

The PuTTY command-line SSH client, the PuTTYgen key generation utility, the Pageant SSH authentication agent, and the PuTTY SCP and SFTP utilities are packaged together in a Windows installer available under The MIT License for free download from the PuTTY development team.

After installing PuTTY:

  1. Launch PuTTYgen.
  2. In the 'PuTTY Key Generator' window, under 'Parameters':
    • For 'Type of key to generate', select RSA. (In older versions of PuTTYgen, select SSH2-RSA.)
    • For 'Number of bits in a generated key', leave the default value (2048).
  3. Under 'Actions', click Generate.
  4. When prompted, use your mouse (or trackpad) to move your cursor around the blank area under 'Key'; this generates randomness that PuTTYgen uses to generate your key pair.
  5. When your key pair is generated, PuTTYgen displays the public key in the area under 'Key'. In the 'Key passphrase' and 'Confirm passphrase' text boxes, enter a passphrase to passphrase-protect your private key.
    If you don't passphrase-protect your private key, anyone with access to your computer will be able to SSH (without being prompted for a passphrase) to your account on any remote system that has the corresponding public key.
  6. Save your public key:
    1. Under 'Actions', next to 'Save the generated key', click Save public key.
    2. Give the file a name (for example, putty_key), select a location on your computer to store it, and then click Save.
  7. Save your private key:
    1. Under 'Actions', next to 'Save the generated key', click Save private key.
      If you didn't passphrase-protect your private key, the utility will ask whether you're sure you want to save it without a passphrase. Click Yes to proceed or No to go back and create a passphrase for your private key.
    2. Keep 'Save as type' set to PuTTY Private Key Files (*.ppk), give the file a name (for example, putty_private_key), select a location on your computer to store it, and then click Save.
    3. If you wish to connect to a remote desktop system such as Research Desktop (RED), click Conversions > Export OpenSSH key, give the file a name (for example, putty_rsa), select a location on your computer to store it, and then click Save.
  8. Log into the remote system using your account username and password.

    If the remote system does not support password-based authentication, you will need to ask system administrators to add your public key to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file in your account (if your account doesn't have ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, system administrators can create one for you). Once your public key is added to your account's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on the remote system...

  9. If your account on the remote system doesn't already contain a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, create one; on the command line, enter the following commands:

    If your account on the remote system already has ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, executing these commands will not damage the existing directory or file.

  10. On your computer, in the PuTTYgen utility, copy the contents of the public key (displayed in the area under 'Key') onto your Clipboard. Then, on the remote system, use your favorite text editor to paste it onto a new line in your ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, and then save and close the file.
  11. On your computer, open the Pageant SSH authentication agent. This utility runs in the background, so when it opens, you should see its icon displayed in the Windows notification area.
  12. In the Windows notification area, right-click on the Pageant icon, select Add Key, navigate to the location where you saved your private key (for example, putty_private_key.ppk), select the file, and then click Open.
  13. If your private key is passphrase-protected, Pageant will prompt you to enter the passphrase; enter the passphrase for your private key, and then click OK.

    If your private key is not passphrase-protected, Pageant will add your private key without prompting you for a passphrase.

    Either way, Pageant stores the unencrypted private key in memory for use by PuTTY when you initiate an SSH session to the remote system that has your public key.

  14. On your computer, open the PuTTY SSH client:
    1. On the Session screen:
      • Under 'Host Name (or IP address)', enter your username coupled with the hostname of the remote server that has your public key; for example:
      • Under 'Connection type', make sure SSH is selected.
    2. In the 'Category' list on the left, navigate to the Auth screen (Connection > SSH > Auth). On the Auth screen, under 'Authentication methods', select Attempt authentication using Pageant.
    3. Return to the Session screen, and under 'Saved Sessions', enter a name (for example, Deathstar), and then click Save.
    4. Click Open to connect to your account on the remote system. With Pageant running in the background, PuTTY will retrieve the unencrypted private key automatically from Pageant and use it to authenticate. Because Pageant has your private key's passphrase saved (if applicable), the remote system will place you on the command line in your account without prompting you for the passphrase.
    Technically, at this point, the setup is complete. In the future, whenever you log into your Windows desktop, you can run Pageant, add the private key, and then use PuTTY to SSH to any remote resource that has your public key. Alternatively, you can create a shortcut in your Windows Startup folder to launch Pageant and load your private key automatically whenever you log into your desktop. For instructions, finish the rest of the following steps.
  15. Open your Startup folder. Press Win-r, and in the 'Open' field, type shell:startup, and then press Enter.
  16. Right-click inside the Startup folder, and then select New and Shortcut.
  17. In the 'Type the location of the item' text box, enter the path to the Pageant executable (pageant.exe) followed by the path to your private key file (for example, putty_private_key.ppk); enclose both paths in double quotes; for example:
  18. Click Next, and then, in the 'Type a name for this shortcut' text box, enter a name for the shortcut (for example, PAGEANT).
  19. Click Finish.

Winscp Ssh Key Passphrase

The next time you log into your Windows desktop, Pageant will start automatically, load your private key, and (if applicable) prompt you for the passphrase.